mRNA COVID-19 vaccine elicits potent adaptive immune response without the acute inflammation of SARS-CoV-2 infection

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  • Ellie N. Ivanova
  • Jasmine Shwetar
  • Joseph C. Devlin
  • Sophie Gray-Gaillard
  • Akiko Koide
  • Amber Cornelius
  • Marie I. Samanovic
  • Alberto Herrera
  • Eleni P. Mimitou
  • Chenzhen Zhang
  • Trishala Karmacharya
  • Ludovic Desvignes
  • Peter Smibert
  • Robert J. Ulrich
  • Mark J. Mulligan
  • Shohei Koide
  • Kelly V. Ruggles
  • Ramin S. Herati
  • Sergei B. Koralov

SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination elicit potent immune responses. Our study presents a comprehensive multimodal single-cell analysis of blood from COVID-19 patients and healthy volunteers receiving the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and booster. We profiled immune responses via transcriptional analysis and lymphocyte repertoire reconstruction. COVID-19 patients displayed an enhanced interferon signature and cytotoxic gene upregulation, absent in vaccine recipients. B and T cell repertoire analysis revealed clonal expansion among effector cells in COVID-19 patients and memory cells in vaccine recipients. Furthermore, while clonal αβ T cell responses were observed in both COVID-19 patients and vaccine recipients, expansion of clonal γδ T cells was found only in infected individuals. Our dataset enables side-by-side comparison of immune responses to infection versus vaccination, including clonal B and T cell responses. Our comparative analysis shows that vaccination induces a robust, durable clonal B and T cell responses, without the severe inflammation associated with infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article number108572
Issue number12
Pages (from-to)1-19
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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© 2023 The Authors

    Research areas

  • Immune response, Immunology, Transcriptomics

ID: 377822551